Evaluation of Toxicological Risks of Nail Coatings Containing Acrylate Monomer HEMA


  • Zane GRIGALE-SOROCINA Riga Technical University https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3092-7811
  • Ingmars BIRKS R&D, Kinetics Nail Systems
  • Anna RAMATA-STUNDA University of Latvia
  • Estefanija BOGDANOVA R&D, Kinetics Nail Systems




coatings, acrylate monomers, cytotoxicity, nail coatings, hydroxyethyl methacrylate


Individuals working in nail salons are exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA has been found to have several effects on the skin: skin itching, peeling, redness and allergic contact dermatitis. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of nail coatings containing HEMA and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) on the skin. In this study we explored the irritation properties of HEMA and HPMA containing nail coatings in cell cultures in-vitro and in skin PATCH tests under dermatological control. The cytotoxicity of coatings was tested in BALB/c3T3 and HaCaT cell lines by a neutral red uptake assay. Cytotoxicity was expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red, compared to the untreated controls. Open patch tests were supervised by a certified dermatologist. Polymerized coating extracts have little effect on Balb/c 3T3 cell viability, while having mild cytotoxic effects on HaCaT keratinocytes. Among two tested samples, extracts of HEMA containing coating exhibited higher cytotoxicity – reduction of keratinocyte viability by 28.29 % in case of undiluted 24 h extract and even by 48.26 % in case of 50 % extract was observed. Coating cytotoxiaty observed on HaCaT showed that the keratinocyte cell line was more sensitive to HEMA than to HPMA containing coating.